Fluorescence ocular imaging has traditionally been used for retinal angiography by injecting fluorescent dye into the vein. The patterns of retinal and choroidal vessels are mapped out by fluorescence camera whilst the dye circulates through the ocular blood vessels.
Autofluorescence is a property of the retina where intrinsic fluorophore chemicals emit fluorescence signal in the absence of dye injection. The most important fluorophore within the retina are derived from vitamin A metabolites and melanin. These substances are autofluorescent under blue and near-infrared light stimulation, respectively. Fundus autofluorescence imaging has become indispensable in the assessment of age-related macular degeneration and inherited retinal diseases. Undergraduate and postgraduate students and junior doctors can be involved in performing and analyzing fundus autofluorescence images.